Arachidonic acid ≥98%, clear, colorless liquid
An essential fatty acid, and a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. Occurs in liver, brain, glandular organs, and depot fats of animals, in small amounts in human depot fats, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides.
Arachidonic acid plays a key role in cellular regulation and is controlled through multiple interconnected pathways.
Arachidonic acid (AA) is an unsaturated ω6 fatty acid constituent of the phospholipids of cell membranes. Phospholipase A2 releases AA from the membrane phospholipids in response to inflammation. AA is subsequently metabolized to prostaglandins and thromboxanes by at least two cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms, to leukotrienes and lipoxins by lipoxygenases, and to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids via cytochrome p450-catalyzed metabolism. AA and its metabolites play important roles in a variety of biological processes, including signal transduction, smooth muscle contraction, chemotaxis, cell proliferation and differentiation, and apoptosis. AA has been demonstrated to bind to the a subunit of G protein and inhibit the activity of Ras GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Cellular uptake of AA is energy dependent and involves protein-facilitated transport across the plasma membrane.Arachidonic acid stimulates adhesion of MDA-MB-435 human metastatic cancer cells to extracellular matrix molecules (collagen IV and vitronectin) . Arachidonic acid plays a key role in cellular regulation and is controlled through multiple interconnected pathways. Changes in arachidonic acid levels correspond to the synthesis of eicosanoids resulting from receptor-stimulated lipid hydrolysis.It activates protein kinase C. Arachidonic acid serves as a precursor to numerous eicosanoids as well as other bioactive molecules.
If ethanol is undesirable, arachidonic acid may be dissolved in acetonitrile, DMF, or DMSO. Simply evaporate the ethanol under a gentle stream of nitrogen (be certain not to evaporate the material to dryness) and redissolve the arachidonic acid in the solvent of choice. It is difficult to obtain aqueous solutions of arachidonic acid directly. However, an organic solvent free solution of arachidonic acid can be prepared using concentrated basic buffers (pH > 8.0 and ionic strength not less than 0.1 M). Add 400 µL of cold buffer (0°C) per mg of arachidonic acid and agitate vigorously and/or ultrasonicate.
Caution: Research Use Only (RUO).